Lecture 2. Hydraulic Systems and Techniques in Maghreb

With the long history of roman civilization in the region, particular typologies of hydraulic systems and related architectural facilities were introduced in Maghreb and south Europe during the Muslim conquest. From ingrutatti to khettara and from souterazi to aqueduct, hydraulic architecture in this region shows deep integration and testifies intense transmission flows between eastern and western technologies and architecture during the Islamic period. This lecture is dedicated to introducing the different hydraulic systems and their related techno-hydraulic architecture which were used or invented to irrigate lands and supply cities. These facilities developed in sophisticated networks to exploit, convey and distribute underground or spring water as well as surface water into the agricultural lands or urban fabrics. The formation of Islamic empire in the North Africa and the South Europe brought a creation of vast economic and cultural space, nourished by the circulation of ideas, cultures, peoples, sciences and techniques from other parts of Islamic empire. Meanwhile, the emergence of new important cities such as Kairouan, Fez, Cordoba, Madrid and Marrakesh, obliged habitants search other water resources and techniques in order to provide potable water for the cities and further more to nourished the expanded agricultural fields developed all around these residential colonies. These new Hydraulic techniques represented a deep relationship with the technique of construction, architecture, engineering, mathematic, physique, hydrology and geology sciences during centuries and of course with the related indigenous knowledge in the region. But they were also integrated deeply with the spatial organization and architectural features, and this lecture tries to underline this aspect through studying the hydraulic systems in this region. Considering the complex history of techniques and their utilizations as well as the variety of possible water resources in each region, the hydraulic systems in Maghreb provide a diverse range of techniques and constructions. The lecture studies these techniques in Maghreb and north Mediterranean territories in two main parts considering water resources based on which these systems were developed: - Part One: Hydraulic techniques developed for collecting, transferring and distributing surface water - Part Two. Hydraulic techniques developed for exploiting, transferring and distributing underground water

supporting documents:


Lecture Notes

Quiz with Answers